What Is Industrial Wastewater Treatment?

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industrial wastewater treatment ppt

What Is Industrial Wastewater Treatment?

The purpose of industrial wastewater treatment is to remove contaminants and clean the water for re-use. It is a step-by-step process that includes Preliminary, Primary, Secondary, and Advanced/Tertiary steps.

The first step is called Preliminary and it involves a series of screens that separate solids from the water. The water is slowed down so that light particles like kitchen grease float to the top and the heavier particles sink to the bottom.

Wastewater Sources

Wastewater is all the liquid waste from homes, businesses and industries that flows into rivers, streams and the Chesapeake Bay. It may contain dissolved chemical contaminants and sediment pollution that can endanger public health or cause environmental damage.

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Most wastewater is primarily water by weight, but can also contain materials such as organic compounds, chemicals and heavy metals. Some of these materials are not biodegradable and therefore, cannot be removed by typical treatment methods.

Industrial wastewater is a major source of pollutants that are hard to remove using traditional secondary treatment processes. These pollutants can include organic synthetic substances and/or toxic recalcitrant compounds such as chromium, phosphorus and nitrogen.

A variety of treatment processes are used to treat industrial wastewater, including brine removal, solids removal (such as filtration), oils and grease removal, biodegradable organics, acids and alkalis and removal of toxic materials. Typically, industrial wastewater is treated to meet the requirements of an industrial pretreatment permit (IPP), which regulates industries so that harmful pollutants do not affect treatment processes and pass through to our lakes, streams, and groundwater.

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Wastewater Treatment Processes

There are many different wastewater treatment processes used to remove contaminants from wastewater. These include chemical, biological and physical filtration methods.

Biological treatment involves the use of microorganisms to naturally separate pollutants from the water. This process is often used in municipal and industrial settings.

It can also be used to convert waste into energy. The resulting bio-solids can be used as natural fertilizers in farming or landfills, or can be incinerated to break down into simpler substances.

Depending on the amount of pollutants in the wastewater, it is either removed through chemical or physical treatment. Chemical treatments can include ozone and chlorine dioxide.

Disinfection Processes

Disinfection processes reduce the concentration of bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms to a desired level. This process is not always needed, but it can be important if there are contaminants that could harm people or the environment.

Chlorine, ozone and ultraviolet light are common disinfection processes used in wastewater treatment (Table 1). They are often the primary choice due to their effectiveness at killing pathogens.

Another disinfection process is adsorption, which removes organic material by attaching soluble molecules to the surface of a solid substrate (adsorbent). Adsorbents must have high specific surface area, and they must be activated before use.

The disinfectant must also have low or no residual and produce minimal byproducts. It should be readily available, easy to handle and cost effective. In addition, it should be a biodegradable and non-toxic solution that doesn’t impact the receiving water. These disinfection requirements are what industrial wastewater treatment ppt facilities look for when choosing a disinfectant.

Wastewater Recycling

The treatment of wastewater is a complex process that requires multiple sewage treatment process steps (show wastewater treatment slide). Wastewater is treated by separating solids from liquids and cleaning the liquid back into clean water.

Many industrial processes produce wastes that contain a high concentration of inorganic and organic matter that must be separated from the water before it can be discharged to the environment. These wastes often require treatment with an acidic or alkaline solution to neutralize the wastes.

In order to improve the quality of the wastewater, some biological processes are used such as photosynthesis and respiration. During these processes, microorganisms convert carbon dioxide and inorganic matter into oxygen and new plant material.

In addition to the above-mentioned treatments, some wastewater recycling processes can be used to reuse the treated water. These include urban reuse, agricultural reuse, environmental reuse, and planned potable reuse.