Understanding the Industrial Wastewater Treatment Process Flow Diagram

Understanding the Industrial Wastewater Treatment Process Flow Diagram

If you’re an industrial wastewater operator, it’s critical that you understand the flow of wastewater at your facility. This can help you ensure that your water is properly treated.

You can use a process flow diagram to track the flow of water through various stages of treatment. The diagram should include stream information such as flow rates, temperatures and pressures.

Primary Sedimentation

Primary sedimentation, or clarification, is a wastewater treatment process that removes readily settleable and floatable solids within the water. This reduces the amount of suspended organic material, and improves the overall quality of the treated water.

The water enters a settling basin or tank, where it slows down to about 1 ft/min (06 to 09 m/min). Heavy solids settle to the bottom while oil, grease, and lighter materials float to the surface.

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Secondary Clarification

Secondary clarification is the process of removing solids that are not dissolved in wastewater. This can be achieved by sedimentation, a separation process in which heavier particles (sediment) settle to the bottom of a tank while lighter ones float to the top.

Secondary clarifiers are used in a variety of industrial processes, including activated sludge and advanced wastewater treatment processes like extended aeration and lagoon systems. They can also be combined with other treatment processes to improve effluent quality and reduce life-cycle costs.

Biological Treatment

Biological treatment involves the use of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and algae to degrade organic pollutants in industrial wastewater. These microorganisms oxidize dissolved and colloidal organic pollutants with the help of a source of energy such as oxygen (in aerobic systems), CO2 and H2O, resulting in the removal of these pollutants from wastewater.

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Biological treatment is an essential step in the industrial wastewater treatment process because it removes a wide range of contaminants from wastewater. Biological processes can also improve water quality and prevent the spread of diseases.


Industrial wastewater is a serious problem as it contains hazardous chemicals that affect water quality and the environment. The treatment of this waste is essential to protect the ecosystem.

The first step in a wastewater treatment process is pretreatment. This involves mechanical and physical separation of solids to minimize the quantity of waste entering the plant.


Industrial wastewater treatment involves physical, chemical and biological unit processes to remove pollutants from industrial waste water before it is released back into the environment.

This process includes a number of important stages, including primary sedimentation, secondary clarification, sludge thickening and filtration. A thorough understanding of these processes can help a wastewater operator to optimize performance and maintain compliance with discharge regulations.

Clarification is the physical process of removing settleable solids and floating scum from wastewater. It is achieved by sedimentation and flotation.

Flow Equalization

In the first stage of wastewater treatment, sewage enters a plant through a screen that removes large pieces of debris and other materials. Some plants have multiple screens in place, designed to remove items of different sizes.

In addition, equalization basins of various types regulate the rate of water inflow so that stones and sand settle out. They also handle overflows due to heavy rains.

Flow equalization is one of the most effective management procedures in a wastewater plant. It guarantees constant and uniform flow condition that reduces costs, increases operational efficiency and improves reliability.